Elderly Suicide: The Risks, Detection, and How To Help12 minute read
12 minute read|
Updated for April, 2019
Suicide rates have increased by more than 30 percent since 1999 in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). States that have seen the largest increases include Utah, Wyoming, Kansas, South Carolina, Vermont, and New Hampshire, among several others. Nevada was the only state reporting a decrease, and that was by only by 1 percent.
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Statistics provided by the CDC also tell us that an overwhelming majority of suicide victims are male versus female. In fact, 84 percent of those with no known mental health condition are typically male, with the remaining 16 percent female. Even those with mental health issues are predominately male, accounting for 69 percent of suicides for this particular demographic.
Suicide by firearm is the method used most often (55 percent), but suffocations (27 percent), poisonings (10 percent, and other life-ending options (8 percent) are sometimes pursued as well. But what do we know about suicide as it relates to the elderly, specifically?
Suicide and the Elderly
While older adults only account for 12 percent of the U.S. population, they account for 18 percent of suicide deaths, according to the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Additionally, this risk increases with age; 75- to 85-year-olds having higher rates of suicide than those who are between 65 and 75, and individuals 85 or older have the highest risk yet.
The AAMFT also reports that the rates of elderly suicide are estimated to be under reported by 40 percent or more due to “silent suicides”—overdoses, self-starvation, self-dehydration, and “accidents.” However, the organization says that this portion of the population has a high suicide completion rate. This is mainly because of the methods they choose, which are typically easier to deduce as actual suicides and thus reported more correctly. The methods include using firearms, hangings, and drownings.
Elderly individuals also tend to have higher double-suicide rates, which involves both partners taking their own lives at the same time, according to the AAMFT.
It’s important that you get help, even if it means sharing what they’ve said to you with others.
Detecting Early Suicide Warning Signs in Older Adults
How do you know whether the elderly person in your life may be contemplating suicide? Mental Health America says there are many warning signs that could indicate that suicide is being considered:
- The person expresses depression or hopelessness
- There has been a loss of independence
- Having been diagnosed with a serious medical condition that could either dramatically change quality of life or end it prematurely
- The senior is isolated socially
- A loved one has recently died or there are family issues
- Lack of desire or inability to deal with change
- Risky behaviors are exhibited
- Substance use or abuse has increased
- Suicide has been attempted previously, or he or she makes statements indicating that life would be better if they weren’t around
- Valuable possessions are no longer important and may be given away
Suicide Prevention Options for Seniors
If these signs are present or you’re otherwise concerned someone may be deciding to take his or her own life, there are many things you can do to help reduce this risk.
Talk with Them
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) says that taking the time to have caring, nonjudgmental conversations with an elderly person who may be considering suicide can sometimes help. When speaking with them, the SAMHSA recommends encouraging them to take advantage of wellness classes offered at area senior centers.
If necessary, you can even find the senior centers first to identify the options that exist before talking to your loved one about the benefits each would provide. For instance, some senior centers offer classes related to hobbies and special interests, potentially reigniting a spark for activities that they enjoy. Even fitness classes can potentially help as Harvard Health shares that physical activity is a natural depression treatment.
When talking with your senior, the Mayo Clinic says that you never want to promise that you’ll keep their suicidal thoughts to yourself. If you believe their life is in danger, it’s important that you get help, even if it means sharing what they’ve said to you with others.
Connect Them with Elderly Support Groups
Another option is to help them find support groups so they can connect with other seniors who are struggling with the same type of life issues. For instance, if they are depressed because they lost a spouse or someone close to them, you may encourage them to find a grief support group. If you’re not familiar with one in your area, Grief.com offers an online search option.
Or maybe it is the elderly person’s physical health that has him or her contemplating suicide. There are support groups for all types of conditions, such as cancer, heart disease, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s. Some are available at local medical care facilities, whereas others may be interspersed throughout the community and held at schools, in libraries, or at organizations that deal specifically with that disease.
Limit Access to Substances
Because problematic substance use is present in 28 percent of suicides, limiting your loved one’s access to drugs and alcohol can potentially keep them from taking their own life while under the influence. Some will hide their drug of choice, according to a thread on DrugAbuse.com, so you may need to look in unconventional places for their stash, such as behind books, under seat cushions, under sinks, in closets, and even in toilet tanks.
That being said, if the elderly person is addicted to a substance, additional actions may need to be taken to ensure that they withdraw from it safely once it is removed from the home. For instance, acute alcohol withdrawal can actually be deadly. So, in this case, you’d want to arrange for a safe withdrawal experience either at a rehab center or local medical facility.
Remove Lethal Means
Perhaps most importantly, if you suspect that the elderly person in your life is contemplating suicide, remove any lethal means that would make it easier for them to go through with the act.
If they have firearms, for instance, get them out of their home and give them to someone who can keep them safe until the elderly person’s situation improves. And if they have medications that can easily be overdosed, you may want to remove those as well (as long as it doesn’t impact their quality of care).
Admittedly, there isn’t much you can do in regard to some of the other lethal means that individuals can use to take their lives, like suffocations or poisonings with household cleaners. But the harder you make it for them to have access to the methods that can end their lives prematurely, the greater your ability to thwart their plans long enough to get them help so they no longer want to take this action.
Knowing what to look for and how to best thwart this type of act, as well as how to respond should they actually attempt it, can help you help your loved ones.
Developing a Response Plan if Suicide Is Suspected
If you feel that suicide is imminent, your response could be the difference between them succeeding or having the opportunity to potentially fight the issues that plague them.
According to the Mayo Clinic, the first step is to sensitively, yet directly, ask the elderly person questions to help you determine how serious the person is about suicide. This involves asking:
- How they are coping with things
- Whether they’re thinking about dying or giving up
- Whether they’re thinking about suicide specifically
- Whether they’ve tried suicide in the past (if you don’t already know)
- Whether they have access to anything that can be used to end their own life
While you may be concerned that your line of questioning could incite the person to want to act on his or her suicidal thoughts, the Mayo Clinic shares that it won’t. Instead, it may actually provide an outlet for them to open up and talk about things, potentially reducing the desire to do it versus making it worse.
If their answers or actions make you suspect that suicide is a possibility, the Mayo Clinic suggests that you “get help from a trained professional as quickly as possible.”
In the meantime, you can also encourage him or her to call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at (800) 273-8255 to talk to someone trained to deal with this type of situation.
If Suicide Is Attempted
In the event that the elderly person attempts suicide and you find him or her, the Mayo Clinic says to call 911 or your local emergency number immediately while remaining at their side. Alternatively, if you feel comfortable and can do it safely, you can transport him or her to the emergency room.
If possible, the Mayo Clinic recommends that you try to determine if the elderly person used alcohol or drugs, which may be readily apparent if liquor bottles or prescription bottles are in the immediate vicinity. If so, this could help the medical care facility create the best treatment plan possible.
Elderly suicide is a major issue and one that involves many different factors. However, knowing what to look for and how to best thwart this type of act, as well as how to respond should they actually attempt it, can help you help your loved ones. It can give them the opportunity to consider the fact that suicide isn’t the best—or only—response that can give them peace, whatever their issues are.